1 vb. "is" am. Nam, RGEO:67. This is the copula used to join adjectives, nouns or pronouns “in statements or wishes asserting or desiring a thing to have certain quality, or to be the same as another” VT49:28. Also in impersonal constructions: ringa ná “it is cold” VT49:23. The copula may however be omitted “where the meaning is clear” without it VT49:9. Ná is also used as an interjection “yes” or “it is so” VT49:28. Short na in airë na, " is holy" VT43:14; some subject can evidently be inserted in the place of . Short na also functions as imperative: alcar mi tarmenel una/u Erun "glory in high heaven ube/u to God" VT44:32/34, also na airë "be holy" VT43:14; also cf. nai “be it that” see nai \#1. The imperative participle á may be prefixed á na, PE17:58. However, VT49:28 cites ná as the imperative form. Pl. nar or nár “are" PE15:36, VT49:27, 9, 30; dual nát VT49:30. With pronominal endings: nányë/nanyë “I am”, nalyë or natyë “you sg. are” polite and familiar, respectively, nás “it is”, násë “she is”, nalmë “we are” VT49:27, 30. Some forms listed in VT49:27 are perhaps to be taken as representing the aorist: nain, naityë, nailyë 1st person sg, and 2nd person familiar/polite, respectively; does a followingna represent the aorist with no pronominal ending? However, the forms nanyë, nalyë, ná, nassë, nalme, nar changed from nár are elsewhere said to be “aorist”, without the extra vowel i e.g. nalyë rather than nailyë; also notice that *“she is” is here nassë rather than násë VT49:30.Pa.t. nánë or né “was”, pl. náner/nér and dual nét “were” VT49:6, 9, 10, 27, 28, 30, 36. According to VT49:31, né “was” cannot receive pronominal endings though nésë “he was” is attested elsewhere, VT49:28-29, and such endings are rather added to the form ane-, e.g. anen “I was”, anel “you were”, anes “she/it was” VT49:28-29. Future tense nauva "will be" VT42:34, VT49:19, 27; another version however gives the future tense as uva, VT49:30. Nauva with a pronominal ending occurs in tanomë nauvan “I will be there” VT49:19, this example indicating that forms of the verb ná may also be used to indicate position. Perfect anaië “has been” VT49:27, first written as anáyë. Infinitive or gerund návë “being”, PE17:68. See also nai \#1. 2, also nán, conj. "but, on the contrary, on the other hand" NDAN; the form nan, q.v., is probably to be preferred to avoid confusion with ná "is", *nán "I am".

Quettaparma Quenyallo (Quenya-English). 2014.

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